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Malattie estive del cane, allergie e micosi cutanee

allergie caneProseguiamo il nostro viaggio-guida sulle malattie estive dei cani: nei giorni scorsi abbiamo parlato della leishmaniosi e delle patologie trasmesse da pulci e zecche. Oggi ci occuperemo delle dermatiti e delle micosi cutanee che possono affliggere i nostri amici in vacanza.

In realtà, il pericolo è in agguato tutto l’anno, ma in estate, stando più tempo all’aria aperta, il cane viene a contatto con più allergeni e parassiti. Inoltre, nei luoghi di villeggiatura, mare o montagna che sia, può capitare che qualcuno dia al nostro animale domestico qualche bocconcino di cibo, all’apparenza prelibato, ma che potrebbe scatenargli delle reazioni allergiche. Ma tralasciamo per un attimo le allergie alimentari per occuparci innanzitutto delle allergie da inalazione.

Si parla di dermatite allergica da inalazione, o dermatite atopica, quando a scatenare l’attacco sono agenti esterni come muffe, pollini, polveri e acari. Sintomi ed effetti collaterali sono prurito, otite e congiuntivite, nonché lesioni della pelle provocate dallo stesso cane quando si gratta e che lo espongono maggiormente al rischio di sviluppare infezioni.
La prevenzione in questo caso consiste nel rimuovere gli allergeni, lavando spesso il cane. Utili allo scopo sono anche prodotti a base di olio di semi di ribes nero e prodotti per la prevenzione delle pulci.

Per quanto riguarda invece l’allergia alimentare, si manifesta a livello dell’epidermide: il cane presenta un mantello secco, ruvido e opaco, con presenza di forfora, perdita di pelo a chiazze, odore sgradevole della pelle, prurito in zone circoscritte. Come spiacevoli conseguenze, il nostro cane potrebbe sviluppare dermatiti, piodermiti, otiti frequenti o croniche, eczema del padiglione auricolare, occhi arrossati, lacrimazione, congiuntivite. In un cane su dieci compaiono anche diarrea e vomito. Per desensibilizzare l’animale si prescrive una dieta ipoallergenica per 2-4 mesi.

Infine, altro rischio in agguato, è l’insorgenza di micosi cutanee, malattie zoonotiche, che si trasmettono cioè dall’animale all’uomo. Principale imputato è il fungo Microsporum canis. Quasi mai si manifestano con prurito. Sul cane compaiono lesioni cutanee circolari prive di pelo. Per curarle, il veterinario in genere prescrive prodotti fungicidi (es.itraconazolo) in compresse o pomate o shampoo per il trattamento topico (es. prodotti al miconazolo, econazolo, enilconazolo).
A domani: parleremo del colpo di calore, il nemico numero uno del cane in estate, seguiteci!

[Fonte: Enci]

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